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4 11月

Tanganyika before united



Tanganyika was a sovereign state, comprising the mainland part of present-day Tanzania that existed from 1961 until 1964. It first gained independence from the United Kingdom on 9 December 1961 as a state headed by Queen Elizabeth II before becoming a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations a year later.

Honestly speaking, since independence in 1961 the government of Tanganyika had established and implemented several strategies of development to create a very stable environment in all aspect of life economically, politically, socially and even culturally to standardize the life of the living beings at large.

Staatsbezoek van president Julius Nyerere van Tanzania aan Nederland. Koningin Juliana, president Nyerere en prins Bernhard op paleis Soestdijk
*21 april 1965

Reference; Creative Commons

 Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication

Julius Nyerere demanded political independence for Tanganyika in 1961.


Tanganyika had a very low development which was poisoned by the three enemies of their serious kinds, turned out to poverty, ignorance and disease as well. Therefore to eliminate or fighting with the aforementioned enemies, there was a need for developing a very and serious weapon that could instantly solve the problems out. Then, by 1961, the government introduced and implemented for main strategies of development the likes of focal point approach, transformation approach, improvement approach and frontal approach.


Focal point:


 was the strategy of development in Tanzania mainland introduced 1961. It was the economic and political strategy of development since it dealt with the large scale farmers only and not small scale farmers. By that time it seemed government concentrated on large scale farmers who promised to quickest return, they dealt with cash crops production for exports but the majority of peasants were not supported by the government as result poverty increased in rural areas so the strategies proved a failure.



Transformation approach: 


was the second strategy of development in Tanzania mainland adopted in 1962. In this strategy, the government asked the World Bank mission to recommend the best way of improving development in the rural area. But the World Bank blamed the peasants because of their rigidity which led to slow development in agricultural and use a communal way of life reduced individual efforts in development.


Improved approach:


 when the transformation approach failed the government introduced another strategy of development called improves. This strategy based on persuasion rather than compulsion. The main objectives of this approach were to expand production in rural areas and to fund market for their products, and also to allow the easy provision of social services in rural areas to improve their living standard.

Truthfully, the improvement approach did not achieve much due to the following problems, the like of lack of education, destruction of forest and reserved areas, educated people refused to participate in agricultural activities and the government failed to promote agricultural education to all peasants as a result concentrated on fewer farmers


Frontal Approach:  


this was a 5-year plan of development under Arusha declaration which operated on Ujamaa villages. On 6th November 1973. the government of Tanzania mainland introduced Ujamma villages programme was based on self-reliance which means the local people’s effect should be used to eradicate poverty in a given society. But some people refused to move from the traditional villages to Ujamma villages; however, they were forced to move.

This approach aimed to establish strong economic units in rural areas by mobilizing collecting people’s efforts, also to simplify the provision of social services to all people at low cost, the likes of primary education, health services, water supply and transport services, especially in rural areas. Simply to put Ujamaa village was given the power to discuss the social and economic development. Therefore they formed several committees such as a political committee, economic committee, security committee and social welfare committee. This helped the national solidarity, integrity and stability increases.




Tanganyika experienced economic problems that make the living standard become very hard to solve after independence. For example, poverty, poor industrial base, poor agricultural development and poor infrastructures such as roads, railways.




There were factors hinder the political unity in Tanganyika, the likes of tribalism that cause a great divisions between the people of Tanganyika, some became dissatisfactory with the way country governed during the former president late Julias Nyerere’s rein, war of words were there between the political leaders, as a result, this situation caused the political unrest in Tanganyika. 

In fact, after Tanganyika got its independence, there were some hops from the massive, since they had deliberated themselves away from the colonialists, many Tanganyika’s people became optimistic instead of pessimistic, and they hoped life could have changed for the better from that moment on particularly under the watch of Julian Kambarage Nyerere, who had taken the heaviest bags of hops of the people behind his back.

In that time, there was some sort of disturbances, discontinuances and instability here and there, while the situation was very messy and even complicated one, thanks to the leadership of Julias Nyerere and his companions who ware there fighting for life, for freedom and fighting for the rights of Tanganyika’s people. truthfully, they were our fabulous cook of what and how we are today, they were incredibly thoughtful and helpful assets who often did unbelievably considerate things for us , beside that they were one who stands steadfastly in case of emergence to lose their lives to let us survive in this world, at times we are supposed to feel ashamed about our thanklessness, lack of appreciation and feelings for all their tireless efforts and positive contributions regarding this country..


Reference; The National Archives UK https://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/

Tanganyika leaders

Then, Tanganyika officially joined with the People’s Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar on Union Day, 26 April 1964. The new state changed its name to the United Republic of Tanzania within a year to now.






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